What does it mean to be “smart?”
This post is a continuation of "What Is So Special About Being s Scientists?"
Healthy infants (99 % of population) may have slight deviations in the potential of smartness, but the actual level of being smart mostly depends on one and one thing only – LUCK!
An ability to run has its own physiological basis - legs.
An ability to reason (including being smart), also has a specific
physiological basis - a developed brain.
Everyone has a brain, but, when we are born our brain is not developed yet, it is just potentially developed, and the level of brain development depends a lot on a good luck one has.
A good luck means - when and where one was born, his/her parents, friends, teachers, and it is mostly responsible for who one will become in his or her 20s (the rest will be up to him or her). For example (more in: https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/665204), since I was little my parents tried to teach me reading, chess, music; I have not become a chess master or a musician, but those lesson definitely help my brain development (and I have no responsibility for that – just was very lucky).
And from this point forward we will use the following terminology.
Smart - a person who has a vast amount of information stored in his/her memory and can retrieve it on demand (or find it quickly using an outside search - because that also requires certain smartness to figure out what information is important and how to find it).
Clever - a person who can use his/her (or searched) knowledge to design new knowledge using the process called "thinking".
We can see, that in this case:
Smart and clever are two dimension of intelligence.
The role of education is to "produce" people that are both - knowledgeable/smart and clever (know things, and can think).
However, currently the society keeps the focus only on the first part of being educated - knowledge.
Knowledgeable people are the basis of a society, they are responsible for a stable functioning, they preserve existing traditions, and sometimes they may object even progressive changes. However, clever people can outsmart knowledgeable ones (like Russian FSB outsmarted American CIA, FBI and NSA in 2016)
Clever people are the agents of change, they can challenge established views and traditions, but sometimes they push for a change just for the sake of the change.
Of course, ideally, one should be both – smart and clever.
In conclusions, we can define a “clever person” as a “problem solver” (“a solution creator”); and a “smart person” as a “solution depository”.
As a “problem solver” a clever person is the one who:
The more difficult, less trivial problem one can solve by creating the solution, the higher the level of “cleverness” of that person.
That is why currently there is no AI that can think, and will not be any soon.