Five Popular Posts Of The Month

Sunday, February 25, 2018

Education reform needs a new paradigm.

Two short video presentations:

Feeling pleasure from video, audio, or kinesthetic sensors comes from nature simply by birth. 
That is what every teacher has to do.
And that is what every good teacher does.

Calculate the ratio of how many school graduates love thinking, to the total number of graduates, and that will give you the ratio of good teachers to the total number of teachers (within 16 % margin).
Not every teacher is a good teacher. But every teacher can become a good teacher. All he or she needs is the wish to become better, right knowledge, right strategy, and some targeted help from the society.
This is why we really need to reform the way education has been reforming so far (for the last 30 years).
Dr. Valentin Voroshilov
Education Advancement Professionals

Education reform needs a new paradigm.
A book “The Prize: Who's in Charge of America's Schools?” by Dale Russakoff (available on Amazon) added fuel into already heated debate about the state of education and the ways to reform it.
The decades-long battle can be summarized as a collision between “charter schools and merit pay” supporters vs. “we need job security and more resources” advocates.
Interestingly, physics had known a similar “clan vs. clan” collision about a hundred years ago at the dawn of the quantum mechanics.
Physics was in a crisis (like the current education is). The world of microscopic phenomena did not fit into the well-established Newtonian mechanics and Maxwell’s electrodynamics. Physicists debated if the new tiny objects sought to be the bricks of atoms were particles just like tiny balls or waves like seen on the surface of a lake.
Eventually the crisis had been resolved.
Turned out the question itself “is it a particle or a wave?” was just a wrong question (like: “Who won 1786 Super Bowl on Mars?” - the question itself has no sense!).
The new microscopic objects (electrons, protons, neutrons, even atoms and molecules) were neither particles nor waves (or some physicists would say - both).
To resolve the crisis scientists had to invent
a completely new way of thinking about the nature.
Turned out that the old way of thinking, which perfectly worked for analyzing macroscopic phenomena, just could not be applied for analyzing the microscopic world - a new paradigm had to replace the old one.
The fact that decades of reforms left education in a state that still needs serous reformation is a clear sign that debaters need to seek a new paradigm, because, clearly, the current one does not work.
(there are multiple online sources that support this statement, just do a search)

Yes, there has to be a way to weed out teachers who cannot teach.
Yes, there has to be a way to provide incentives to teachers who do a good job.
But on the other hand, there is no solid statistical evidence that a merit pay works (rather, there is evidence that it does not).
And on average only one in five charter schools visibly outperform public school in student learning outcomes (again, multiple sources provide that information, e.g. here).

Let’s stop a debate for a moment and close our eyes and try to imagine how would teachers teach and students learn 50 years from now. And then looking from the future let’s try to find a way to get to it from where we are now.

First, we would not see in classrooms many math or physics teachers instructing students how to solve problems. Nowadays computers already can play a game of chess, beat a Chess world champion, beat a GO world champion, win the Jeopardy, and take SAT tests (Don't believe? Just Google!).

This is because such games as chess and Jeopardy, and such subjects as math and physics are highly structured; they have a very strict logic and a well-established set of rules and choices which can be enumerated and tested out one by one (computers are very good at this kind of work).

Soon enough (I expect in about two decades) robots will learn how to solve math and physics problems and then how to teach how to solve math and physics problems. So, STEM teachers will not be needed any more in the same way as they are needed now - i.e to drill students.

A similar fate and because of the similar reasons awaits for teachers teaching reading.

In general, every skill which can be automated, will also be able to be taught by an automat, hence will be automated (but the real human-level AI is not coming any soon.)

Teachers will become more like directors, tutors, conductors, motivational speakers - a.k.a. facilitators.

But until this time has come, every skill which has to be learned by our students has to be taught by our teachers. So, today teachers have to facilitators and content experts.

So far, and in the foreseeable future, textbooks do not teach students, tablets do not teach students, buildings do not teach students, standards do not teach students – teachers do.

If we want better learning outcomes from our students – we need better-teaching teachers in our schools (biological or artificial - no matter).

Of course, even the best teacher in the world is limited by the conditions he or she has to work into; but if a perfect school building with perfect textbooks and computers and general infrastructure is filled up with poorly prepared teachers, students are doomed to be mediocre (and in this is the biggest threat for the future economy and the future of the country).

This is why all reformers of all ranks always state that they want to attract to their schools or districts the best teachers from all over the country.
This is why they all compete for the same people from the same pool of excellent teachers.

And that pool is not very large.

And this is why only one charter school out of five shows some improvement over public schools around (despite the fact that almost all charter schools have some extra resources, which regular public schools do not have). Because that one out of five charter schools gets the best teachers, and all other schools – charter or public – have to employ the rest.

Instead of competing for the same teachers,  schools, officials, politicians have to start working on preparing as many good teachers as possible.

This is why I write in my book “Becoming a STEM Teacher: a Crash Course for People Entering the Profession”: “The key problem of contemporary education is not an insufficient teaching, it is an insufficient teacher preparation. Effective, productive, sufficient teacher preparation will result in effective, productive, sufficient teaching.”

Nowadays, the U.S., or even individual states, have NO effective SYSTEM for teacher professional development. If it would have existed, schools would have many more good teachers, and we would not be discussing this issue, because it would not exist (just an example of the use of a scientific thinking).

Teacher preparation is essentially no different from how a "tough" parent teaches a kid how to swim (you know how). Many ed schools issue many degrees in "education leadership", but not many of them teach teachers their subject and how to teach that subject (many ed school instructors and reformers do not know who to do it)."Education leadership" is no more than a training on how to be leader in a field of education. Being a leader is a part of ANY good management, not specific to education. There is no need to have a degree in that. "Education" part means that a manager has to know specific legal/administrative aspects of management. That requires having a good legal consul rather than a PhD. A good manager in education must know first and foremost what does it mean to be a good teacher. This is the crucial, central, most important part of
"education leadership", and that part is most often omitted from the training.

Of course an insufficient teacher preparation is not the only problem, but is has to be seen as the central problem of education reform (even more important than having sufficient funding and exceptional school principals).

OK, let’s assume we all agree on that. What do we do about it?

First, we do not need to spend any money any more to study what is the difference between a good teacher and a not so good teacher. We do not need spend any money anymore on "inventing" some overarching ideas on how to improve education.

Instead we should use money (and money taken from many other unnecessary “research”) to “make” more good teachers. And to do that we have to reform the system of teacher professional development.

We have to give money to teachers – partly as an addition to a wage, partly as a stipend for professional development, and say: “Please, do the best you can and teach our children, and to grow professionally every day of your work. But, please, keep in mind, that we are also watching you, and at the end of every year we will publicly inform everyone in the world about the results of your work”.

“Imagine what a strong motivation to do the best he/she can would a teacher have if at the end of every year everyone could see how his/her students performed comparing to the rest of the country!” (another quote from my book).

We need to separate from each other two important professional actions:
1. measuring the quality of teaching
2. judging teachers (i.e. making decision about his/her professional status).

Of course, these two sides of a profession are tightly connected. But the first part – measuring – has to be regular and continuous; the second part should be delayed, because every teacher needs to have a chance to grow up professionally, and as long as we see the progress, we should give a teacher an opportunity to work.

With the money teachers can use for their professional development, and with the public attention to the results of their work, teachers will become active consumers on the market of professional development. When teacher professional development programs will be financed by teachers, eventually, only those of the programs which really help teachers to succeed will remain on the market.

The government should help teachers to openly share the information about which professional development program actually helped them to teach better, and which didn’t.

The role of the government is to create efficient system for collecting data on the quality of teaching embedded into the everyday teaching practices of teachers. All the data should be clearly and openly available to public. Internal professional evaluation should remain as a part of the system, and may change in time, but should not be the focus of administrators or officials.
The focus should be on “mining” and presenting to public reliable and comparable data, but only a portion of that data should be used as a part of an official internal/expert teacher evaluation.

BTW: in 2016 I offered the Massachusetts Department of Education a project with the goal of the development of a website where teachers could give a standardized feedback on a teacher professional events they have attended for their PDPs. It's actually would not be too complicated to do. First of all, every PDP provider would have been assigned an ID, and then teachers could have been leaving their systematized feedback on each PDP provider, and teachers could search providers based on feedback and overall ranking. The Department's response was "We have no interests" (this post offers more details).

All true professionals share the same five top qualities: curiosity, vision, ability to reason, ability to laugh at themselves, and strict criteria of the own professional job.

A professional teacher has the sixth – the love of learning.
Due to this love he or she will continue pushing himself/herself toward higher professional results. The best professional development program should be helping a teacher to do just that.

One of the most efficient approaches is called “Professional Designing”.

I understand that what I described above is not yet a plan for a reform, or not even a draft of a plan (more details are in the book).

From my point of view, this idea plays a role of a litmus test; it divides people into two groups, the ones who stick to the “charter schools and merit pay” vs. “job security and need more resources” debate, and the others who are looking beyond it.

The current parading of the reformers, which is: “We have to force all teachers to teach good, and those who cannot - have to be fired”, has to be replaced with a new one, which is: “We have to give resources to teachers and a freedom to use those resources for continuous professional growth, but make comparable and public results of their work”.

How is the new paradigm related to the distant future when robots will teach as good as people can (at least in STEM education)?
Do we really know if charter schools work and – more importantly – do we want to know?
“Baker said expanding access to charter schools, especially in low-performing districts, would provide relief for the families of 37,000 students on waiting lists.”
“Opponents of charter school expansion, including teachers’ unions and many parents, argue that such institutions drain funding from school districts and use rigorous discipline policies to drive out low-perfuming students, assertions that proponents dispute.”
The two quotes above come from Friday’s Boston Globe (10/09/2015). They reflect common sentiments familiar to everyone following the pro-con-charters discussion. The most striking attribute of this discussion is that neither party can offer solid statistical data to support its view against the opponents’ view.
There are people, including parents of 37,000 students who believe that charter schools would do for their kids a better job than public schools. There are people, including many teachers and their union representatives, who believe that charter schools do not do much good for the most of the students. But if a discussion is based solely on believes and emotions it never can lead to a productive resolution (the Congress comes to mind).
I would like to ask one question to both sides: “Are you really so supercilious that you deny the mere right for your adversary to be right on something?”.
If the answer is “Yes” (meaning “I am right on everything and they are totally wrong”), this situation is helpless; there will be no discussion, no communication, just yelling at each other and accusing each other in all the evil in the world.
But if both sides have people who are capable of communication with the opposite side, this is what I would suggest them to do.
Sit down together and instead of arguing if charters are bad or good, start talking about how can they decide if the charters are bad or good.
Each side should say: “OK, I want to know this kind of numbers, because I believe those numbers will prove that I am right. I do not mind if you want to know other numbers important for you. Let’s figure out how do we measure together all those numbers and also let’s agree on the decision-making criteria; if such and such numbers reach such and such level charters are bad/good.”
When the both parties find an agreement on how will they both validate their views, then the discussion will be directed into a constructive direction.
P.P.S (two more articles on education reform)
P.P.P.S (A very useful lesson about reforming education which comes from Canada)
After a decade of making a transition from "traditional" ways of teaching mathematics to "learn math via discovery" Canada wants to go back.
"Canadian students’ math skills have been on a decade-long decline because rote learning was replaced by discovery-based methods that promoted multiple strategies and estimations, according to a new report that calls for a return to tradition." 
This is what happens when Ideology wins over Reason - this time in education.

P.P.P.P.S Another set of arguments is available here 
or here;
from the latter piece:
"In Finland, students spend around 600 hours/year in a relaxed environment, calling their professors by their first name and incorporating the arts into every subject. Finnish schools offer flexible schedules to cater to the students’ learning pace and sleeping habits." 
In order to successfully navigate such classes teachers must be absolutely fluent in their subjects well beyond the grade they teach, they need to know fundamentals of science and psychology, they have to be highly effective in communication with a diverse group of students, and also have time to professionally grow. that requires a completely different approach to teacher preparation and to teacher evaluation.
"100 percent of teachers in South Korea and Finland come from the top third of college graduates. In these countries, teaching is a competitive field with an abundance of pursuers. In America, only 23 percent of teachers come from the top third of their class".
This statistics needs no comment.

Thank you for visiting,
Dr. Valentin Voroshilov
Education Advancement Professionals

To learn more about my professional experience:
The voices of my students 
"The Backpack Full of Cash": pointing at a problem, not offering a solution
Essentials of Teaching Science

The mission (i.e. the reason for existence) of education 
as a human practice is to ensure the progress of humanity.

The mission of education as a social institution
is enabling people to succeed in life.

The goal of educational institutions
is to equip people with relevant knowledge and skills.

The mission (i.e. the reason for existence) of science as a human practice is understanding the world in its entirety (outside and inside human subjects); i.e. developing exact description of the world’s structure and evolution.

The function of a specific science is making reliable predictions in a specific scientific field.

The mission of a scientist as an agent of that practice is discovering truth and presenting it in a testable form.

The mission of a teacher is fostering in students his/her love for learning.

The mission of a science teacher is sharing with students the feeling of pleasure from thinking.

The mission of a mentor is sharing with students the feeling of pleasure from doing the right thing.

The mission of a parent is making children feeling safe, loved, and confident.

The mission of humanity is making world a better place.

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